Learn faster with Brainscape on your web, iPhone, or Android device. Study Tony Thomas's Vertebrate anatomy and physiology I flashcards now! A skeleton is the framework of an animal's body. • Most vertebrates have an internal skeleton or endoskeleton, which protects various parts of the body. Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight.Definition · Vertebrate anatomy · Invertebrate anatomy · Other branches of anatomy.
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Nervous tissue is derived from the ectoderm, connective tissues are derived from mesoderm, and gut is derived from the endoderm.
At the posterior end is a tail which continues the spinal cord and vertebrae but not the gut. The mouth is found at the anterior end of the animal, and the anus at the base of the tail.
The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column, formed in the development of the segmented series of vertebrae. In most vertebrates the notochord becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs.
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Bird anatomy Part of a wing. Birds are endothermichave a high metabolic ratea light skeletal system and powerful muscles. Vertebrate anatomy and physiology long bones are thin, hollow and very light. Air sac extensions from the lungs occupy the centre of some bones.
The sternum is wide and usually has a keel and the caudal vertebrae are vertebrate anatomy and physiology. There are no teeth and the narrow jaws are adapted into a horn-covered beak.
The eyes are relatively large, particularly in nocturnal species such as owls.
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They face forwards in predators and sideways in ducks. Large flight feathers are found on vertebrate anatomy and physiology wings and tail, contour feathers cover the bird's surface and fine down occurs on young birds and under the contour feathers of water birds. The only cutaneous gland is the single uropygial gland near the base of the tail.
This produces an oily secretion that waterproofs the feathers when the bird preens. There are scales on the legs, feet and claws on the tips of the toes.
Mammal anatomy Mammals are a diverse class of animals, mostly terrestrial but some are aquatic and others have evolved flapping or gliding flight.
They mostly have four limbs but some aquatic mammals have no limbs or limbs modified into fins and the forelimbs of bats are modified into wings.
The legs of most mammals are situated below the trunk, which is held well vertebrate anatomy and physiology of the ground.
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The bones of mammals are well ossified and their teeth, which are usually differentiated, are coated in a layer of prismatic enamel. The teeth are shed once milk teeth during the animal's lifetime or not at all, as is the case in cetaceans.
Mammals have three vertebrate anatomy and physiology in the middle ear and a cochlea in the inner ear.
They are clothed in hair and their skin contains glands which vertebrate anatomy and physiology sweat. Some of these glands are specialized as mammary glandsproducing milk to feed the young.
Mammals breathe with lungs and have a muscular diaphragm separating the thorax from the abdomen which helps them draw air into the lungs. The mammalian heart has four chambers and oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are kept entirely separate.
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